The principal developmental task of the first year of life is the establishment of a secure attachment between infant and primary caregiver. For this bond of emotional communication to develop, the caregiver must be psychologically and biologically attuned to the child’s needs, emotions, and mental state. Beyond the basic function of secure attachment — which […]
The stress response is critical to understanding the neurobiology of trauma and attachment disorder. Stress is an automatic physiological response to any situation that is threatening, overwhelming, or requires adjustment to change. The stress response includes many physical changes, such as increased heart rate and breathing, and inhibited digestion and immune response, triggered by stress […]
How you attach to other adults strongly corresponds with how you attached to others as a child. Four distinct styles of attachment have been identified — and perhaps recognizing yourself in one of them is the first step toward strengthening your relationships.